Bass guitar, synthesizers, vocals, Pitcher
Electric and acoustic guitars, Taurus pedals, First Base
Drums and percussion, Third Base
Produced by Rush and Terry Brown, Left Field
Arrangements by Rush and Terry Brown
Recorded and mixed at Le Studio, April, May, June, and July 1982
Engineered by Paul Northfield, Centre Field (a regular Albert One-Stone)
Assisted by Robbie Whelan Right Field
Digitally mastered by JVC
Special guest performance by Ben Mink, electric violins on Losing It, appears courtesy of FM
Art direction, graphics, and cover concept by Hugh Syme
Photography by Deborah Samuel
Compact disc redesigned by Stve Kleinberg
Hydrant courtesy of the Department of Public Works, TORONTO
Management by Ray Danniels, SRO Productions, TORONTO
Executive Production by Moon Records
Road Manager and Lighting Director: Howard Ungerleider
Concert Sound Engineer: Jon Erickson
Stage Managers: Nick Kotos and Liam Birt, Shortstop
Stage Right Technician and Crew Chief: William B. Birt
Stage Left Technician: Skip Gildersleeve
Centre Stage Technician: Larry Allen, Coach and Catcher
Guitar and Synthesizer Maintenance: Tony Geranios Second Base
Stage Monitor Mixer: Steve Byron
Concert Security: Ian Grandy
Concert Projectionist: Lee Tenner
Personal Shreve-of-all Trades: Kevin Flewitt
Concert Sound by National Sound: Tom Linthicum, Fuzzy Frazer, and Dave Berman
Concert Lighting by See Factor International: Nick Kotos, Mike Weiss, Jeffrey Thomas McDonald, Mark Shane
Busheads and Truckfaces: Tom Whittaker, Billy Barlow, Lance Vaughn, PatLynes, Arthur MacLear, Red McBrine, Bob Hoeschel
Most Valuable Persons: At Le Studio; André, Yaël, Paul Robbie, Richard, Solange, Nancy, Lina, Awesome André Moreau and Michel; Al, Pat, Jill, and Maria at The Baldwins; The Embers at Settlers Bay; Warren Cromartie and the Montreal Expos'; Intellivision Baseball; The Ziv Orchestra; Trevor and the Commons Hotel; Trevors Tramps (34-15); the Griffin family and the people of NASA; Mr. O. Scar for pre-production work; Bill Churchman; all the Oak Manoroids at SRO
Special Awards for Technical Assistance: John Kaes and See Factor, Ted Veneman, Richard Ealey, Ron Shaughnessy, the Music Shoppe TORONTO, the inflationary Ted McDonald, the Percussion Centre FORT WAYNE, Tama drums, Avedis Zildjian cymbals
A fond farewell and best wishes to Michael Hirsh and Greg Connolly
© 1982 Mercury Records © 1982 Anthem Entertainment
"That's been an urban myth for years. It's not my voice on 'Subdivisions' by Rush but I continue to get credit. I've tried to dispel it but won't go away." - Mark Dailey, Citytv.com, March 23, 2009
Neil Peart later confirmed in a 2010 interview that he himself in fact provided the voice when discussing Jacob Moon's cover of "Subivisions" at Rush's induction into the Canadian Songwriters Hall of Fame earlier this year:
"We all shared Jacob Moon's performance of Subdivisions quite a long time ago and sent it to each other, 'Hey have you seen this?' because it's such a beautiful cover. The imaginative way that he uses the little cassette player to get my voice in there. It's superb." - Neil Peart, Jam!Showbiz, March 26, 2010
Signals has a cyclical framework. It opens in suburbia, on the edge of "the far unlit unknown," contemplates escape in The Analog Kid, explores universal human imponderables - the essence of our humanity, sex, religion, old age - and ends with actual escape to the stars in Countdown...
Ah, you noticed that. We were hoping no one would. It's so unfashionable these days to construct grand concepts. We're being closed mouthed about it. Some people, and I don't expect there'll be many, will be insightful enough to catch it. Although it's interesting that you, the first writer I've talked to about the album, did pick up on it. - Neil Peart with Greg Quill, Music Express, September/October 1982
"The summer before I turned fifteen, my family camped outside Montreal to visit the World's Fair, Expo '67, and at the campground, I met a girl from Ohio. Her father was extremely watchful (warning her that Canadian boys had 'Roman hands and Russian fingers'), and we never even kissed, but I fell hopelessly in fourteen-year-old love...I always remembered her ('the fawn-eyed girl with sun-browned legs' in the song 'The Analog Kid')". - Neil Peart, Roadshow
"Well the song sort of came out of a sort of a little bit of personal comedy. We had the title way before we had a concept. There was a guy who we hired, I think it was on Moving Pictures, to bring all this digital equipment so that we could master the album digitally, and he was a sort of a 'strange' example of modern man, without going into too much detail. We were sitting around talking, and Le Studio had gotten their own digital equipment, so there was really no need to hire our digital man this time. And we were trying to figure out beds, you know, bed assignments, how many guys in the crew we could take to the house near Le Studio, because the situation is you live right on the premises. So somebody came out with the phrase 'Well I guess we won't need a bed for the digital man' and everybody went (snaps his fingers) 'Fantastic!' So we wrote it down and Neil developed a whole concept about modern man and the sort of transience of modern man in the sort of society that we're living in. That sort of spurred the tune and the feel for the tune but it sort of represents technology getting to a certain point, the ease that one can float from one part of society to another, and one part of the world to another." - Geddy Lee, Innerview with Jim Ladd, 1983
"We decided to write another song...So, thus was born 'Project 3:57'! [aka New World Man] In order for another song not to cause great inequality between the length of the two sides, and not to cause us trouble in the mastering of the album, it had to be under four minutes. We decided to play this one fast and loose, writing it in one day and recording it the next! We wanted to capture a spontaneous, relaxed feel for this one, not even spending much time getting the sounds together. Thus, it could stand in contrast to the rest of the album, being much more raw and 'live' in its affect. Two days is very close to a record for us to write and record a song." - Neil Peart, "Stories From Signals"
"'New World Man' was the very last thing we recorded for the album. We were determined to get as much music as we could on each side of the record, and after we had finished working on everything, we discovered that the record ran about four minutes short. So we sat down in the studio and began playing around with ideas to fill up the four extra minutes. We figured if worse comes to worse we could always save ideas for the next album. Geddy said, 'Hey, how do you like this?' And he laid down the bass lick that's the foundation of the song. We had no idea it would be a hit. But we're sure not gonna complain." - Alex Lifeson, Hit Parader, March 1983
"[Chemistry: 'two to one, reflections on the water'] it's a reference to two lovers...it's about love, and the second part of it's about the three of us. It's very simple." - Neil Peart, Feedback! Rock Interviews, July 1983
"With 'The Analog Kid' I'm looking at a period of life that all people go through. The youthful restlessness, that adolescent discontent, and the different ways that people handle it. It looks at a person that's in the throes of choice. What happens after that choice you see so much...again looking at people I know, and people I grew up with, some of them forget that (restless feeling), and other people say 'I feel like I gotta leave, and they go', which is the way I did it. I just said 'I feel restless, I feel like I wanna do something', and I went and did it. Everybody experiences that as an adolescent. It's a very painful and difficult time of life. Everyone experiences the discontent. Some people choose to take the safe way, and say 'no, never mind, I'll just go to college and be an accountant', or 'I'll just go get a job in a factory', take the safe way, the easy way, get married when they're sixteen, and start paying for a car or whatever. It looks at the period before the choice is made. It looks at, to me, what are the important feelings of that time, the sensitivity too of that time; what moves you; I remember myself in that particular time and how sensitive I was to nature and to cities and to people, the whole thing, and that's basically what that was trying to capture." - Neil Peart, Feedback! Rock Interviews, July 1983
"While we were making that record we formed a softball team and those were the positions we played." - Geddy Lee regarding the positions listed in the linernotes, "Rockline", May 21, 1984
We were getting a little bored with inactivity. During the mixing of "Exit... Stage Left" there was really not much for us to do except say "it sounds good" or "it doesn't sound good".
I had been working down in the little studio, cleaning and renovating an old set of Hayman drums that were kicking around, and had started working on a "Jack Secret" song with Jack and Skip from the crew. Geddy and Alex soon joined in on keyboards and rhythm guitar, and we later recorded the song ("Tough Break") up in the studio.
I had also been working on some lyrics for a few days and had come up with "Subdivisions", an exploration of the background from which all of us (and probably most of our audience) had sprung.
One afternoon as I was idly polishing my car, Alex and Ged returned from working at the little studio, set up a portable cassette player right there in the driveway, and played me the musical ideas they had come up for it.
"It's kinda weird, but what do you think?"
"Let me hear it again."
I listened closely, picking up the variations on 7/8 and 3/4, the way the guitar adopts the role of rhythm section while the keyboards take the melody, returning to bass with guitar leading in the chorus, then the mini-moog taking over again for the instrumental bridge.
"I think it's great."
We had been tracking up the Sir Francis Drake Channel most of the day, on a leisurely zig-zag course to Virgin Gorda. At the wheel was our stalwart guest helmsman, Geddy, with Captain Mike and myself reclining in the stern and offering directions. We all watched the pennant halfway up the starboard shrouds, gauging our attitude to the wind. Up forward, First Mate Keith and Deck Steward Tom stood by the sheet for the Yankee jib, ready to wrestle it across the deck for the upcoming tack.
Captain Mike decided that we were close enough to land now to make the manoeuvre, so that if we ran out of wind he could walk to shore! He gave the helmsman his instructions:
"Okay, call out 'prepare to come about', and spin the wheel hard over to starboard."
"That's right, right?"
"prepare to come about"
Captain Mike laughed his best "dirty old sailor" laugh; "They've got to hear you up there, YELL it out!"
"oh ... PREPARE TO COME ABOUT!!!"
Last night Geddy played me some of the things he had been working on at home. He had an electronic instrumental that would become the basis for "The Weapon", a new extended intro for "Vital Signs" live , and a couple of other ideas that we haven't yet used.
That night as we lay at anchor in Virgin Gorda, Geddy and I went down below after dinner, and I showed him some of the work that I had been doing. I had written "The Analog Kid" as sort of a companion piece to "Digital Man", which had been written last fall up at Le Studio. He liked it, and we discussed different ways it could be treated musically. As we often do, we thought it would be interesting to take the opposite approach to what the lyrics would suggest;make it a very up-tempo rocker, with some kind of a dynamic contrast for the choruses. We also looked at a rough version of "The Weapon" that I had put together, and agreed that it would need some more work. He told me what he liked, and what he didn't like, and gave me some good points to go to work on. We put an end to the "shoptalk" and went back to our holidays.
Around 4:15 we all made our way on to the bus. Kevin had checked us out of the hotel, and stowed the luggage in the bay, as that night we would be driving on to "Somewhere-Else USA." Whitey put the bus in gear and drove off toward the hall.
In "road-time", this is first thing in the morning, and there was not much to say beyond the perfunctory "good day". Geddy rustled the local paper, checking the latest baseball scores, Alex flicked disinterestedly through a "Plane and Pilot" that he had read twelve times, and I smoked a cigarette in a sleepy stupor. Curtains closed against the world, we rode away to the gig.
At the hall, we checked out each of the instruments separately; boom-boom-boom, tap-tap-tap, thud-thud-thud, strum-strum-strum, woof-woof-woof, test-test-test, et cetera, and then gradually moved into a little spontaneous creation. This tour for the first time our sound man, Jon, has been taping our soundcheck meanderings, and it had proved very fruitful to us. On this particular day in "Somewhere USA" we will unknowingly write a whole song at once, each of us playing a different part. While Geddy plays what will become the keyboard melody for the bridge section, Alex is playing the guitar riff for the verses, and I'm playing the drum beat for the choruses. Just like that!
When Alex and Geddy get together to sift through the soundcheck tapes they will find a whole song written here, and will arrange it and make a demo that will be very close to the finished song.
Lyrically, this is the first time that all three of us have collaborated on the words to a song. Geddy and Alex together came up with the title and concept for the song, wrote out a few key phrases and words that they wanted to get in, then passed it along to me for organization and a little further development. When all of this is put together, we have what was probably the easiest song to write on the album. Once again, our "Research and Development" department of sound check jams comes through.
At this time of year there is still no sign of spring up here. The lakes and ground are still blanketed by about four feet of snow, the temperatures are steadily sub-zero, and one is obliged to dress rather like an Arctic explorer to go outdoors.
We are up here for a month to work on new songs. We have a row of chalets to stay in, and the winterized upper room of a barn to work in. An open fire is friendly company for me as I spend the afternoons working on lyrics, while Alex and Ged are over at the barn working on musical ideas. The cold, crisp air and the thick shroud of snow create a very magical atmosphere in which to work, especially walking back at night when the full moon gleams on the diamond-dusted snow. Some people have nothing good to say about winter, but I find it very beautiful. One night Larry and I borrowed a pair of snowshoes, and went out walking on the frozen lake. The moon shone down on the bluish snow almost like daylight, and the dry air was so cold it pinched your nostrils shut. That might sound like a nightmare to you, but to me it was a dream-world!
"Digital Man" had actually been started last fall at Le Studio, when we had put together the lyrics and the music for the verses and the "ska" style bridges, but we had been unable to come up with the right combination for the choruses. After much head scratching, we finally came up with the sequencer pattern, and the guitar and drum patterns to go with it. We were all very pleased wit the dynamic and unusual nature of the part, it was so different for us; but our "objective-ear", co-producer Terry Brown was not so enthused.
Now, this has happened before, when we all get excited about a part, only to have Broon come along and tell us "it sucks". (He's a diplomatic guy!) Usually, we either see the error of our ways, or give up and let the "old man" have his way. This time however, we were so sure that we were right that we refused to give in. We talked and talked about why we liked it, how we heard it being recorded, and what it could do for the song as a whole. We wore away at him inch by inch, until he got tired of hearing about it, offered a few half-hearted suggestions, and relented. "After all" he admits, "I have been wrong before!" Or, as his daughter Victoria put it so well: "I can't help it if you're always wrong!" No respect.
With a Roland drum machine and assorted synthesizers, Geddy and friend Oscar secret themselves in Ged's music room to create some music of a highly confidential and experimental nature. Among the Top Secret projects which they produce is the basic foundation for this song, including a highly mysterious and bizarre drum pattern which Oscar coaxes out of the drum machine. (I'm supposed to learn how to play that?)
Well, I do love a challenge, and once we start to tackle this at one of the rehearsals, I discover that if I play totally backwards, and bend my hands a few ways they don't normally go, I can do it. The shame of being reduced to learning from a machine! However, I must admit, I would never have come up with something like that on my own!
With all this and more to accomplish with my hands, it is no compromise to let my bass drum foot play a steady "four", which is also something I never thought I could do. This also brings the feel of the song perilously close to a (shudder) d-d-d-dance song, like, you know, disco! Treason! Treason! Kill the traitors! They wrote a song you can dance to! Will you ever forgive us? (No.)
It was fun to do, though. It's so contrary to the mood suggested by the lyrics, and such a different approach for us, that it is a very satisfying piece of work. It's an all-out production number that we can play live, so I'm sure all the "disco kids" will soon be coming to our concerts. Ha!
At this point the basic tracks for the other seven songs were finished, and we have enough for an album, but we have always wanted to write another song for this one. We want more! There are moral reasons why an album shouldn't be too short, but there are technological reasons why it shouldn't be too long. What shall we do?
We decided to write another song, and if it turns out to be too long, we won't put it on, but if we come up with something short enough, we will have an eighth song.
So, thus was born "Project 3:57"! In order for another song not to cause great inequality between the length of the two sides, and not to cause us trouble in the mastering of the album, it had to be under four minutes. When was the last time we wrote a song under four minutes, you ask? That's a good question, and one that we asked ourselves too. But we figured we had nothing to lose; if it's too long we simply put it away and save it for another record. (Actually "Different Strings" and "Circumstances" were both under four minutes, and "Closer to the Heart" and "Madrigal" were both under three, we can do it!) Target - 3:57!
I spent a couple of days wringing out my notebook, and tying in a few of the themes from other songs, and came up with a straightforward, concise set of lyrics consisting of the two verses and the two choruses, and then we went to work.
We decided to play this one fast and loose, writing it in one day and recording it the next! We wanted to capture a spontaneous, relaxed feel for this one, not even spending much time getting the sounds together. Thus, it could stand in contrast to the rest of the album, being much more raw and "live" in its affect. Two days is very close to a record for us to write and record a song. The quickest ever was "The Twilight Zone" from our "2112" album. That was written and recorded in one day. But then that whole album was completed in under a month; things are different now!
Like the verse sections for "The Analog Kid", the main theme for this song came from Alex's holiday exercises (we all did our homework!). We worked out the verses and choruses while we were in rehearsal, and made a skeletal demo of it with just keyboards and drums, then put it away until we got to the studio.
We had talked for a while about getting Ben Mink to play electric violin somewhere on this album, and this seemed like the perfect track. Once we got into the studio, we developed the jazzy solo section, recorded the basic track, and gave Ben a call. Fortunately he was able to get away from his group, "FM" for a couple of days, and bring his unique instrument up to play his heart out for us.
Ben's violin! That's a story in itself! There a several little cows grazing in there, as well as a "Beach Party" scene, complete with little Frankies and Anettes. All of this illuminated by four green Christmas lights that provide the necessary inspiration for such a piece. Sounds crazy? You bet!
We worked him hard, squeezed him dry, and threw him away. He just stood there in front of the console, taking it and giving it, fueled by occasional sips from a bottle of C.C. Not only the monumentally fantastic solo did we demand, but we had him multiple-tracking an entire string section as well. That'll teach him to be our friend!
[Webmaster note: the date above is obviously a typo, as the inaugural launch of the Columbia was April 1981...]
We were there! It wasn't easy, but we made it! We had a long-standing invitation to the first launch, and always swore that we would be there no matter what. Little did we know!
On April 9th we flew into Orlando on a day off, checked into a hotel, and slept until about four A.M., when we had to leave for our rendezvous at the Air Force Base near the Cape. There we met our liaison man, who conducted us safely into the "V.I.P." zone (Red Sector A) in the pre-dawn hours. We stood around, listening to the announcements, as the sun rose higher and hotter in the sky. We were due to play that night in Dallas, so we couldn't wait much longer. Finally they announced that the launch would be scrubbed for that day. The computers weren't speaking!
Well, we ran for the car, and our daring driver sped off, around the traffic jams, down the median of the highway, and got us to the airport barely in time.
The next night we had a show in San Antonio, after which we drove off immediately, clambered into a hired jet, and flew straight back to Florida. This time the launch took place on schedule, and it was SOMETHING!! (More about that in the song.) Again we raced backed to the plane, and flew off once more, back to Fort Worth where we had a show that night. Fortunately the day after that was a day off, so we had a chance to catch up on all that sleep!
I remember thinking to myself as we flew back to Fort Worth after a couple days without sleep: "We've got to write a song about this!" It was an incredible thing to witness, truly a once-in-a-lifetime experience. I can only hope that the song comes even close to capturing the excitement and awe that we felt that morning.
So, that's the album. I hope that you will all enjoy it. We put a lot into it, including about a month of our summer holidays - (didn't quite get finished on time!) We tried to break some new ground for ourselves; explore some different types of songs and sounds; while continuing the directions begun by "Permanent Waves" and "Moving Pictures". I guess it will be like always; some will love it, some will hate it, and some will say:
"Rush?? Signals?? What the hell is that??"
Management by: Ray Danniels, SRO Productions, TORONTO
Road Manager and Lighting Director: Howard Ungerleider
Stage Manager: Nick Kotos
Concert Sound Engineer: Jon Erickson
Stage Right Technician and Crew Cheif: Liam Birt
Stage Left Technician: Skip Gildersleeve
Centre Stage Technician: Larry Allen
Guitar and Synthesizer Technician: Tony Geranios
Stage Monitor Mixer: Steve Byron
Personal Shreve: Kevin Flewitt
Concert Sound by National Sound; Tom Linthicum, Fuzzy Frazer, Dave Fletcher
Concert Lighting by See Factor; Tom Booth, Mike Weiss, Dave Berman, and maybe Mark Cherry
Concert Visuals created by Nick Prince, Al Kamajian, Gerald Packer and Norman Stangel (Nelvana)
Busheads and Truckfaces: Tom Whittaker, Pat Lynes, Billy Barlow, Arthur MacLear, Harry Smith, Gordon Scott, and Red McBride.
(Belated credit to Rockin' Al Posner, who was shamefully omitted from the album)
Concert Rigging by Bill Collins' Southfire Rigging
U.K. Transportation by Edwin Shirley Trucking, Len Wright Travel, and Bill Churchman
Booking Agencies: American Talent International, NYC, The Agency Group, LONDON, and The Agency, TORONTO
Program Design by Hugh Syme
Photography by Fin Costello, except where indicated
Cover photo Deborah Samuel
click here for the answers
submitted by Dave Webb, Warwickshire, U.K.
1 The track that is not on any of their studio albums (6, 4)
1 The longest track on their 2nd album (2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 3)
Well, well! Hello again for another tour! (This is getting to be habit forming!) I've got some new drums to tell you about. Once again, they are Tamas; with the custom candy-apple red finish, the brass plated hardware, and the Vibra-Fibing of the inner shells performed by the Percussion Center of Fort Wayne. The sizes remain the same: two 24" bass drums, 6", 8", 10", and 12" concert toms, 12", 13", 15", and 18" closed toms, and 20" and 22" gong bass drums. My snare is still the same old wood-shell Slingerland, and I am using the Tama wooden timbales with great satisfaction.
With the exception of the trashy Chinese cymbal, all my cymbals are by Avedis Zildjian. They are: 8" and 10" splash, 13" High Hats, two 16" crashes, one each 18" and 20" crash, a 22" ride, an 18" Pang, and a 20" China Type.
In the Department of Percussion Effects are orchestra bells, tubular bells, wind chimes, temple blocks, numerous semi-melodic cowbells, triangle, bell tree, and crotales.
There are Remo Clear Dot heads on the snare and bass drums, Evans Heavy Duty Rock on all the toms and the gong bass drums,and Evans Tom-Tom models on the bottoms of the closed toms. These are all non-Hydraulic heads. I use clear Remos on the timbales. All of the stands and hardware are by Tama, and I am still using Promark 747 sticks, with the varnish removed from the gripping area by Larry.
And that's all!
Well Sports Fans, it's time again to go through this seasons' starting lineup on Stage Left:
My #1 bass once again is a Rickenbacker 4001, with an occasional appearance by my Fender Jazz. All my basses are loaded by Bad ass bridges and Roto Sound Round Wound strings. Not to mention my Jelinek B-1000 with a deep set pocket and 100% top grain Steerhide throughout.
This section seems to be getting a bit out of hand! On the 'Signals' tour I'll be using the following:
OBXA with a DSX Digital Sequencer, interfaced with two Moog Tarus Pedals. Roland JP 8 Synth, and a Roland 8o8 Compu-Rhythm working in conjunction
Mini-Moog with Yamaha E1010 Delay.
Also featuring the fashionable, new, Jack Secret Keyboard Stand and Switching System! No home should be without one!
Same as it ever was! Same as it ever was!
2 Ashley Preamps powered by 2 BGW 750-B Amplifiers into 1 Thiele design 2 x 15 cabinets and 1 Ampeg V4-B cabinet with JBL K140 speakers.
I run this in stereo for the Rickenbacker, and a Skip Gildersleeve Human Switching Device for the Fender. My Synthesizers are plugged directly into the House P.A. System and on stage I use a custom "Joe Bombase Synth Cabinet". O.K! That's it! Enough already! Hope you enjoy the show!!
I've broken down the equipment I'm using into three catagories; amplification, guitarification and effectification. It is truly an amazing coincidence how similar all three catagories are to each other. For instance, through my keen sense of awareness, I've noticed all three have a series of knobs! Can you believe it? Also the amps and assorted effects all have glowing lights! Incredible! The amps I'm using are four Marshall Combos which we jokingly refer to as the Marshall Combos. In the guitar department I'm down to four, a black one, a red one, a white one and a brownish one. They all have six strings and a long wooden piece sticking out from the body. I also have two acoustic guitars both with six strings, one steel string and the other plastic (or something like that). Both the guitars have rounded bodies to make them impossible to play sitting down. They also have holes all over the sound board which is sort of like a diving board I think. My double neck guitar was recently crushed by an elephant. Too bad.
For effects, I have many. Two Yamaha E1010 Analog Delays, Delta Lab DL-5 Harmonizer, Loft Analog Delays, Advanced Audio Digital Delay, Roland Boss Chorus, Electric Mistress Flanger, Mutron Octave Divider, M.X.R. Distortion Plus, Westinghouse Blender, Cry Baby Wah Wah, two Amana Freezers, Morely Volume Pedal, a gas pedal, a flower pedal, Maestro Parametric Filter, Cigarette Filter, six nozzles, three lungs and a M.X.R. Micro Amp. All of these effects are capable of producing a wide range of sounds. Some are scary while some are awful. I prefer the scary sounds. Also I'd just like to mention that I...ah, um, uh,...I have to go now.